Poland - Open science country note

Open science and the national context

The Polish Government does not have an official open access strategy or open access policies at this time. An advisory group to the Ministry of Science and Higher Education has been established in October/November 2014, with the goal of developing a national strategy for open access to research content. It is expected to produce a national strategy in the first half of 2015.

A Bill on Open Resources was prepared by the Ministry of Administration and Digitization in 2012, but it never passed. The bill encompassed different aspects of open access in research, culture and public sector information (PSI).

Open access publishing is currently not taken into account for evaluation of research output in Poland. Thomson Reuters’ Impact Factor remains one of the major evaluation criteria, but independent metrics are being developed. A ranked list of Polish research journals is also used for evaluation, but while information on journals’ open access policies is collected, it has no influence on the ranking.

Open science research and innovation actors

NCN – the National Science Centre – is a government agency set up to fund basic research.

NCBiR – the National Centre for Research and Development – is the implementing agency of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, in charge of the performance of tasks within the area of national science, science and technology, and innovation policies. It funds research in these areas through strategic programmes. NCBiR activity is funded by the national treasury and European Union funds.

MNiSW – the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – provides the public funding for NCN and NCBiR as well as for research institutions (public universities, the Polish Academy of Science).

CeON – the Centre for Open Science is a unit devoted to development of open science research, tools, services and promotion; it was created in 2010 within the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling (ICM), University of Warsaw. CeON develops software tools to support open science, and operates the largest Polish research open access infrastructure. It provides national scientific content services (such as its Virtual Library of Science, with over 10 million full-text publications) to all the Polish research institutions. It also acts as the centre of competence on open science, including its legal aspects.

FNP – the Foundation for Polish Science is a non-governmental, non-political, non-profit institution that pursues the mission of supporting science. It is the largest source of science funding in Poland outside of the state budget.

Open science and business sector actors

In 2013 and 2014, many Polish academic journal publishers adopted open access policies. As of April 2014, almost 50% of 2 000 Polish peer-reviewed journals were available in open access without embargo, and an additional 10% were open access with an embargo period.

Paperity.org, an aggregator of open access journals, was launched in October 2014. The founders (the CEO is a Pole living in Warsaw, the team is international) admit that they do not as yet have a business plan. It therefore is not clear whether Paperity will become a non-profit or for-profit endeavour.

Policy design - Open data

While there is no formal policy for research data so far, access to public sector information is regulated by the Act on Access to Public Information of 6 September 2001. Two new regulations have been issued by the Ministry of Administration and Digitization in the beginning of 2014; these relate to the operations of the Central Repository for Public Information, and defining the information assets to be placed in the repository for each sector, including the required frequency of their updates. All these regulations refer to public sector data. The Central Repository for Public Information (CRIP), supervised by the Ministry, became operational in 2014.

As regards research data, a new research data centre – OCEAN – has been funded by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), and will become operational in 2015. The centre’s aim is to provide the e-infrastructure for storage of open data as well as facilities and expertise for big data analysis. A budget of about EUR 20 million has been allocated for the OCEAN data centre for 2014-15. The intended target population is the entire Polish research community.

Policy design - Open/increasing access to scientific publications

Through the Virtual Library of Science (WBN) programme, funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, CeON signs contracts with Polish research journals to provide their publications in open access. Contracts with over 200 journals have been signed to date.

Within the same programme, CeON negotiates country licences for books and journals of international scientific publishers. Besides access, several other aspects of the licences are required; these include their perpetuity, the right to archive full texts, and the right to process the full texts and the metadata. As a part of the deal, some major international publishers allow Polish affiliated authors to publish without transferring copyrights and without additional fees. Since 2010, Polish authors have the right to opt for publishing their articles with these publishers under an open access licence instead. This should build a larger corpus of Polish research articles published in traditional peer-reviewed journals, but also available in open access.

In terms of incentives, these are currently mostly limited to providing better visibility (of articles but also scientific journals) through open access. There is a discussion, though still in a very early phase, on adapting official scholarly output evaluation mechanisms to better reflect the value of open access and the recent evolution of ways to conduct scientific research.

There is no formal requirement to publish in open access.

Implementation of open access in Poland focuses mostly on the enablers:

·           The Ministry of Science and Higher Education runs a Polish scholarly bibliography service (PBN, pbn.nauka.gov.pl) for reporting research output. The service provides an option for authors reporting their publications to deposit a copy and make it available in open access.

·           Infona – the Polish Scholarly Communication Portal (Infona.pl) – harvests and makes available the contents of open access research repositories and open access journals, as well as other research resources.

·           In some cases, Polish authors publishing in a foreign research journal can decide not to transfer their copyrights and use an open access licence instead. This option is free, provided that the main author is affiliated with a Polish institution.

·           The Virtual Library of Science (WBN) provides a common platform (yadda.icm.edu.pl) for the research journals to make their publication available in open access, as well as tools for building national research bibliographic databases.

·           There is no long-term budget for implementing the open access policy.

The WBN programme is funded yearly based on evaluation of the proposals by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

The institutions involved are:

·           The Ministry of Science and Higher Education

·           CeON – the Centre for Open Science (ICM, University of Warsaw).

Copyright in Poland is regulated by the Act on Copyright and Related Rights of 4 February 1994. Creative Commons licences are widely used for open access publications.

Public domain does not formally exist in Polish legal space, so open access is mostly limited to open licences and items for which the copyright has expired.

Skills for open science and open data

Poland is one of the partners of the recently started project FOSTER, which aims to support young researchers in adopting an open access approach and in complying with the open access policies. The project intends to establish a European-wide training programme on open access and open data, consolidating training activities across Europe. The project involves partners from Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom.

The OCEAN research data centre will provide an extensive training curriculum for big and open data handling and analysis, as well as an environment for interdisciplinary research teams to support researchers from different areas of science.

Open science and international co-operation

Poland is one of the major partners of the European Open Access Research Infrastructure OpenAIRE; the country’s services are provided from a data centre in Warsaw. Polish responsibilities in OpenAIRE include development of data- and text-mining solutions, as well as daily operations and maintenance of the core infrastructure.

Poland is a founder of COAR, the Confederation of Open Access Repositories.

Poland was greatly involved in developing the D-NET open repository aggregation system used in a number of countries (RECOLECTA in Spain, national repository consortia in Slovenia and Argentina).

Poland is also partner in a number of large European research and infrastructure projects.

Printer-friendly versionPDF version