Biotechnology policy: Developments, implications and conclusions (Future Prospects for Industrial Biotechnology)

A range of supply- and demand-side policies, from biomass production to waste and by-products, have been deployed to develop the biofuels industry. It is important to balance supply and demand incentives, but this balance is not easily achieved. As biofuels globalise, there is a need for internationally agreed standards and to enable free trade and stimulate markets and the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) to verify sustainability. There is as yet no policy arsenal for bio-based chemicals and bioplastics comparable to that available for biofuels. However, the integrated biorefineries of the future will probably depend on their production alongside high volume, low margin transport fuels to make refinery economics viable.
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