Industry and Science Relations (OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China 2008)

Relations between science and industry (often abbreviated as ISRs: industry-science relations) encompass the interactions between higher education institutions (HEIs) and public research institutes (PRIs), which compose "science", and the business enterprise sector, called "industry". In a context of increasingly knowledge-based economic development, the creation, diffusion and use of scientific knowledge in the activities of enterprises (especially their innovative efforts) should be a key element in the performance of a national innovation system (NIS). Consequently, ISRs have gained importance in science, technology and innovation policy tools in most countries (OECD, 2002; Joanneum Research, 2001).
Image description here.