Institutions, Policy Implementation and Governance (OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: South Africa 2007)

This chapter examines two components of the innovation system: education and research (or knowledge infrastructure) and the political system (or policy and governance). For the first of these, it focuses on research and development (R&D) by higher education institutions and public research institutes (the science councils). It draws on international experience to highlight the importance of balance in the system: first, between university R&D and business enterprise R&D; and second, between the different roles and activities of public research institutes. However, it is important to recognise that the latter is a variable that needs to be tuned to the particular structure of economic actors and activities in the economy.
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